Fighting in Sudan since April 15 has killed hundreds of people, with large-scale humanitarian needs, with thousands fleeing their homes.The humanitarian crisis in the country had lead to large numbers of refugees fleeing to neighbouring Chad, South Sudan and Egypt. Prompting foreign countries to evacuate their citizens for fear of an all out civil war in an already unstable region.

The power struggle is between head of the army and leader of Sudan’s ruling council since 2019, General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan and his deputy on the council, General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, the RSF leader also known as Hemedti.

The Sudan’s army and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), together overthrown a long-ruling Islamist autocrat Omar al-Bashir in a popular uprising.
The popular uprising that raised the hopes of over 46 million population of Sudan, after decades of misrule, internal conflict and economic isolation under Bashir.

The Sudan’s army and the RSF were required to cede power under internationall backed transition plan aimed at returning the country to civilian rule, where RSF will be integrated into the regular armed forces,

The Sudan’s army having lost faith with initial alignment, accused the RSF of illegal mobilisation in preceding days as they occupied key strategic sites in Khartoum. Countering the army, the RSF equally accused the army high command of plotting to seize full power with Bashir loyalists.The army branded the RSF a rebel force and demanded its dissolution, while Hemedti called Burhan a criminal and blamed him for the crisis.

Though Sudan’s army has superior resources including air power and an estimated 300,000 troops, the RSF has an estimated 100,000 troops deployed across major cities. The RSF draw support from tribal ties in the western region of Darfur, where it emerged from militias that fought alongside government forces to crush rebels in a brutal war that escalated after 2003.

As the plan for a new transition developed, Hemedti who grew wealthy through gold mining, aligned himself with civilian parties from a coalition, the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC), that shared power with the military between Bashir’s overthrow and scheme to transform himself into a statesman and cement his position at the centre of power. Hemedti and FFC poised to sideline Islamist leaning Bashir loyalists and veterans who had regained a foothold following the coup and have deep roots in the army.

A crisis that have destroy those hopes and destabilise the war-thorne region bordering the Horn of Africa, Sahel and the Red Sea. Despite
International clamour for ceasefires due to humanitarian concern, both warring parties have intensified fighting prompting foreign nations moving in droves to extract it citizens.

While Western powers, queue behind a transition towards democratic elections following Bashir’s overthrow. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates sought to shape events in Sudan, seeing the transition as a set back to Islamist influence and stability in the Sudan.

President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi the military president of Egypt who overthrew his Islamist predecessor, has deep ties to Burhan, and the army of former government of Bashir’s.

The Gulf states holds huge investment interest in ports on Sudan’s Red Sea coast, while Russia seek to build a naval base on the Red Sea, with UAE companies signing up to invest.

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